In addition to the listed courses, all areas offer independent studies numbered 299 or 399 with variable credit. The purpose of an independent study is to allow well-qualified students to study beyond the regularly offered courses. Students who undertake independent studies must be able to work independently between meetings with the instructor and have completed a minimum of 33 credits with a GPA of at least 2.70. Planning ahead is necessary: independent study proposals, syllabi, and required registration paperwork must be completed well before the term in which the study is to occur. Full details can be found in the undergraduate student handbook.